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WE are now approaching the most important and also the most
urgent problem in this book, for we have come to the borders of
Pakistan is an Empire. True, at the moment it is only an empire
of dreams, but in the minds of the Muslim it is none the less real
for all that.
Literally it means Land of the Pureó('pak5 pure ; cstan* land).
In geographical terms it means a great block of laud in the north-
west of India, consisting of Baluchistan, Sind, the Punjab, and
the North-West Frontier, together with a block in the east, con-
sisting of the greater part of Bengal.
It is proposed that these areas^ which are predominantly Mus-
lim, should be separated once and for all from the rest of India,
which is predominantly Hindu, and should proclaim themselves,
an independent state. This proposal has the fanatical support of
the Muslim League, a compact and fighting organization, which
commands the allegiance of at least eighty-five per cent of India's
Muslims. Its leader is, of course, Mr. M. A* Jinnah.
This dream empire may one day come out of the clouds, and
place itself on the world's map with a bang. I am cue of those
who believe not only that this will happen, but that it must happen*
If it does, an entirely new situation will have arisen in Asia, which
will shatter the existing balances of power, and drastically modify
the policies of every country in the world.
It seems fitting, therefore, that we should cross the borders of
tLL Empire, and study it in detail.
but before we do that, we must first study the background
against which the dream was born, the background of communal
discord between the Muslims and the Hindus, which Pakistan
seeks to resolve. We have had scattered evidence of it throughout
tiis book but we have not yet isolated it for special consideration
The time has come to do so.                                                 ^
' The City of Bombay, compared with most of the big cities of